Serine in the human body, used in medicine and sports. Amino acids play a huge role in the human body – they are responsible for building proteins, various metabolic processes, and the production of other vital chemical compounds. Essential amino acids enter the body only from the external environment, while other non – essential amino acids are synthesized in the body itself. However, do not think that we can not feel the need for substances of the second group. Deficiency of interchangeable amino acids is possible and dangerous for the development of pathologies, but it can be prevented if you introduce more products rich in the necessary amino acids into the diet, and drink a course of appropriate pharmaceuticals or dietary supplements in a timely manner. These interchangeable, but necessary aminocarboxylic acids include the substance serine, whose properties and functions we will discuss in this article, touching on its use in medicine and sports, content in food, and others.
Serine in its optimal natural form and dosage is contained in bee products — such as pollen, Royal jelly and drone brood, which are part of many natural vitamin and mineral complexes of the company “Parafarm”: “Leveton P”, “Elton P”, “Leveton Forte”, “Elton Forte”, “Apitonus P”, “Osteomed”, “Osteo-Vit”, “Osteomed Forte”, “Eromax”, “memo-Vit” and “cardioton”. That is why we pay so much attention to each natural substance, telling about its importance and benefits for a healthy body.
The amino acid serine: discovery and purpose
- 1 The amino acid serine: discovery and purpose
- 2 Serine in the human body functions and value
- 3 Application of serine in medicine
- 4 Application of serine in sports
- 5 What are the dangers of deficit and oversupplyserine in the body?
- 6 Serine: what foods do they contain?
- 7 Daily norm of serine
The discovery of amino acids was a new page in the biochemistry of the century before last. Since the beginning of the NINETEENTH century, one after another, scientists have found organic acids in food, animal tissues and fluids, and in plants, containing amine and carboxyl groups – (-NH2) and (-Coon), which cause a combination of acidic and basic properties. After asparagine, leucine, glycine, taurine, tyrosine and other compounds, the amino acid serine was discovered. In 1865, it was extracted from the protein of natural silk sericin by the German E. Kramer. The source of the discovery and gave the name to the new substance – serine (Greek. silk).
The chemical structure of serine is reflected by its scientific names – (2S)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, or in Russian: 2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid, as well as the formula: C3H7NO3. This hydroxynicotinate is a pure water soluble crystalline powder whitish hue, and the taste is slightly sweet and sour. Combining the characteristics of an amino acid with the properties of alcohol is a feature of this compound. Like many amino acids, it exists in the form of two isomers-L and D, as well as in DL-form, reflecting the structure of the molecules. L-serine is involved in the formation of almost all proteins in nature, both animal and plant origin, especially its content in cell membranes is high. D-serine is formed from L-molecules and is also biologically active, which allows it to be used for medical purposes.
Serine in the human body functions and value
Serine performs a wide range of functions in the human body. It itself is synthesized during glycolysis from the intermediate compound of this reaction-3-phosphoglycerate, and the amino group NH2 is attached from glutamic acid. For its formation, vitamins B3, B6, B12 and folic acid are necessary.
The resulting amino acid is necessary for a huge variety of biochemical processes, the most important of which are:
- synthesis of proteins, including brain tissue;
- formation of other amino acids: cysteine, glycine, tryptophan, methionine;
- formation of DNA and RNA molecules;
- synthesis of essential fatty acids;
- synthesis of complex fats phospholipids-significant elements of cell membranes that perform important transport functions in cellular metabolism;
- production of glucose when it is deficient in cells-the contribution of serine to the energy needs of the body;
- production of antibodies and immunoglobulins necessary for the normal functioning of the immune system;
- participation in the production of nucleotides, coenzymes, creatine and creatine phosphate;
formation of serine peptidases, which are catalysts in various biochemical processes;
synthesis of hemoglobin, purine and pyrimidine, choline, ethanolamine and many other compounds.
As we can see, serine is necessary for the normal physical functioning of the human body. But this amino acid is also very important for our neuropsychic activity and for the functioning of the brain. The fact that it is a part of nerve cells, it acts as a regulator of nerve signals, a neuromodulator; it is also a neuroprotector, since it protects neurons, being part of the myelin sheaths of nerve fibers. In addition, serine affects the production of serotonin, nicknamed the pleasure hormone for its mood-enhancing effect.
It should be noted the related nature of the amino acids serine and glycine, which can transform into each other. Their functions are similar, so they are considered interchangeable aminocarboxylic acids.
Application of serine in medicine
The diverse functions of the amino acid in question in the human body determine the nature of serine use in medicine.
Its biochemical properties allow it to be used for the correction of metabolic processes: in combination with other medications, it is prescribed for protein-energy insufficiency, low caloric intake; for anemia caused by a lack of hemoglobin. It is also prescribed to increase immunity, treat tuberculosis, infectious diseases, the urinary system, the gastrointestinal tract, for better regeneration of the skin, connective tissues and bones.
In Psychoneurology, serine is used in connection with the regulatory effect on neurons as a nootropic, that is, a stimulator of brain activity. Serine helps reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and, according to some scientists, Alzheimer’s. It also weakens such manifestations of post-traumatic stress disorder as depression, anxiety, fear of going out into society, etc. Activation of cognitive functions of memory, attention, and intelligence, including in the elderly, may also be the purpose of this tool. At high physical and psychoemotional loads, preventive serine intake is possible. In addition, it improves the medicinal effect of other drugs.
Based on serine, the antibiotics azaserin, which has an antitumor effect, and cycloserine, which is used for tuberculosis, urinary tract infections, and a number of mycobacterial diseases, were obtained.
Among the properties of this amino acid should be noted its ability to make the skin more elastic and attractive, to moisturize it, retaining moisture in it, so serine is part of various cosmetic creams and gels.
Application of serine in sports
Along with other amino acids, serine is used in sports. Its energy and metabolic features help athletes recover better after grueling training loads, get a boost of strength for the upcoming sports tests.
Serine contributes to:
- formation and assimilation of creatine-a substance that plays a primary role in muscle building;
- creating energy reserves in the liver and muscles, as it helps to Deposit glycogen in them;
- the conversion of glycogen into glucose – the most important energy fuel for physical activity;
- normalizing the level of the hormone cortisol, which has a destructive effect on muscle tissue;
- active lipid metabolism, including improving fat burning, which helps maintain an optimal weight and, together with muscle building, an athletic figure;
- natural pain relief;
- more complete absorption of vitamins and other useful substances.
- We should not forget about the high degree of exposure of athletes to stress and emotional overload (especially in the pre-competition and competitive periods). And here serine’s neuromodulating properties can come to the rescue.
What are the dangers of deficit and oversupplyserine in the body?
Serine, like all interchangeable amino acids, is able to synthesize itself in accordance with the needs of the body. A balanced diet and the availability of sufficient amounts of vitamins B3, B6, B12, as well as folic acid are necessary factors for optimal production of this compound. Scarcity and overabundance of it occur rarely. One of the reasons for the lack of serine in the body is an inherited (innate) metabolic disorder that does not allow this substance to be produced; another is uneven development in childhood, which causes an imbalance in metabolic processes. Low content in the diet of products that include serine can lead to its lack, especially at high energy costs (mental and physical strain).
Serine deficiency manifests itself as depression, chronic fatigue, sleep disorders, weakening of the immune system, decreased mental and physical performance, impaired transmission of nerve impulses, psychomotor abnormalities, seizures, mental disorders up to Alzheimer’s disease.
An overabundance of serine is no less dangerous. Gastrointestinal disorders, headaches, nausea, and sleep disorders are the most harmless symptoms. Overdose serine might lead to allergies, high blood hemoglobin and glucose, hyperactivity, decreased level of adrenaline, the fall in immunity, tumorigenesis. It is no accident that this substance has a reputation as an amino acid that causes insanity. Large doses of this substance have a toxic effect on neurons, cause neuropsychiatric disorders.
Contraindications to serine in the composition of dietary Supplements are distributed to pregnant and lactating women. Individual intolerance, epilepsy and alcoholism, heart failure-may also be contraindications. In a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and pathologies, in kidney diseases, in childhood, serine can only be prescribed by a doctor for medicinal purposes, in strictly prescribed doses.
According to many experts, the percentage of people who need additional intake of this amino acid is small. If you have classified yourself in this category, then in no case should you exceed the dosages indicated in the instructions for use of a specific dietary Supplement.
Serine: what foods do they contain?
The amino acid in question is present in both animal products and plants. Let’s not forget that a healthy intestinal microflora and a sufficient level of b vitamins and folic acid are necessary for its successful absorption.
High content of serine is noted:
- in cheese
- dairy products
Vegetarians can get serine from:
- pumpkin seeds
- sunflower seeds
- Brussels sprouts
- parsley and other plants.
Daily norm of serine
The answer to the question of how much serine per day should be taken depends on the metabolism of each individual, his mental and physical activity, whether there are indications or contraindications to taking it, and other conditions (these subtleties are covered above). On average, the recommended dosage of serine per day is 3 grams (the maximum dose, for high needs – 30 grams). Use a dietary Supplement more effectively between meals, this will help avoid increasing blood sugar levels.
In medicines or supplements, serine can be combined with other medicinal substances, iron, and amino acids. Pharmacological preparations containing serine are available in tablets, capsules and ampoules for intravenous administration. Side effects in the form of allergic manifestations, gastrointestinal disorders are most likely when taking tablets.